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Measuring DO NOT MEASURE ANY INGREDIENTS OVER THE MIXING BOWL.
One of the skills needed to prepare food is measuring. Let’s review some important points about measuring.
Measuring Liquid Ingredients
• Use a liquid measuring cup to measure water, oil, fluid milk, juices, and syrup.
• Measure liquids in marked, clear containers.
• Set measuring cup on a flat surface. Check at eye level to make sure the correct amount is measured. Measured Dry Ingredients
• Measure dry ingredients in containers that allow you to level off the ingredients across the top edge.
• Use a dry measuring cup to measure ingredients like flour, sugar, cornmeal, dry milk and solid shortening.
• Sift or fluff dry ingredients, like flour, with a fork before measuring.
• Spoon dry ingredients into dry measuring cup. Level off ingredients with the flat edge of a knife.
Recipe Preparation Steps
1. Read the recipe to make sure you have all the food and equipment you need. Be sure you have enough time to prepare the recipe.
2. Clear and clean a work area.
3. Set out all ingredients needed.
4. When necessary, preheat the oven, then grease and flour pans.
5. Prepare the recipe.
Boil: To heat the liquid until bubbles break to the surface, or to cook in boiling water.
Broil: To use direct heat to cook.
Coat: To cover the entire surface with a mixture, such as flour or bread crumbs.
Core: Using a sharp knife, remove the core/seeds of a fruit.
Cream: To stir one or more foods until they are soft.
Crisp-tender: Describes the “done-ness” of vegetables when they are cooked only until tender and remain slightly crisp in texture.
Cut in: To mix fat into dry ingredients using a pastry blender, fork or two knives, with as little blending as possible until fat is in small pieces.
Dice: To cut into small, square-shaped pieces.
Drain: To put food and liquid into a strainer (or colander), or to pour the liquid out of a pot by keeping the lid slightly away from the edge of the pan and pouring away from you.
Flute: To pinch the edge of the dough, such as on a pie crust.
Fold: To mix by turning over and over.
Fork-tender: Describes the “done-ness” of food when a fork can easily penetrate the food.
Knead: To mix by “pushing” and by folding.
Marinate: To soak in a seasoned liquid to increase flavor and tenderness.
Mince: To cut or chop food into small pieces.
Mix: To combine ingredients using a fork or spoon.
Oil: To apply a thin layer of vegetable oil on a dish or pan. Vegetable spray may be used instead.
Sauté: To cook in a small amount of fat or water.
Scald: To heat milk until bubbles appear (bubbles should not be “breaking” on the surface). Shred: To rub foods against a grater to divide into small pieces.
Simmer: To cook at a temperature that is just below the boiling point. Bubbles form slowly but do not reach the surface.
Steam: To cook over boiling water.
Stir fry: A method of cooking in which vegetables are fried quickly to a crisp-tender state while stirring constantly.
Stock: Water in which vegetable(s) or meat has been cooked. The stock liquid should be stored in the refrigerator.
Ways to Increase Fiber
• Choose whole grain instead of refined products. For example, use whole wheat flour, brown rice, oatmeal, whole cornmeal and barley.
• Whole-wheat flour can usually be substituted for up to ½ of the white flour in recipes. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 cups of flour, try 1 cup or white and 1 cup of wholewheat flour.
• Add fruits to muffins, pancakes, salads and desserts. Add vegetables to casseroles and salads.
• Add grated or mashed vegetables or fruits to sauces or baked goods. For example, you can add grated carrots to spaghetti sauce and meat loaf.
Try using ¼ to 1/3 less sugar in baked foods and desserts. *For example, if a fruit pie recipe calls for 1 cup of sugar, use ⅔ or ¾ cup sugar. This works best with quick bread, cookies, pie fillings, custard, puddings, and fruit crisps. It may not work for some cakes.
Do not decrease the small amount of sugar in plain yeast breads because it provides food for the yeast and helps the bread rise. You do not have to add sugar when canning or freezing fruits. Or, you can buy unsweetened frozen fruit or fruit canned in its own juice or water.
Increase the amount of cinnamon or vanilla in a recipe to make it seem sweeter. Do not do this if sugar in the recipe has already been reduced.
Try using herbs and spices to season your food. You may find that you can cut down the amount of salt you use. Some seasonings contain salt and/or sodium.
Use these sparingly:
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Many seasoning mixtures contain a lot of salt – read the label!